Selected Bibliography

Works by Jack Schaefer

[This list includes only editions in English. Even so, it may be incomplete, and will be expanded if additional titles or editions become known. Titles in print are preceded by an asterisk.* ]

An American Bestiary. Foreword by James S. Findley. Houghton Mifflin, 1975.

The Big Range. Houghton Mifflin, 1953.

The Canyon. Bantam Books, 1968. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin, 1953.

Collected Papers. Accession #430. American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming at Laramie.

The Collected Stories of Jack Schaefer. Introduction by Winfield Townley Scott. Houghton Mifflin, 1966.

Company of Cowards. Bantam Books, 1970. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin, 1957.

Company of Cowards. Andre Deutsch (London), 1958.

Conversations with a Pocket Gopher and Other Outspoken Neighbors. Illustrated by Irene Brady. Capra Press, 1978.

First Blood and Other Stories. Bantam Books, 1970.

This collection may have included an Introduction by Schaefer. First Blood--which is, in fact, a novel--was originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1953.
Foreword to Indian Country, by Dorothy M. Johnson. University of Nebraska Press, 1995. Originally published by Ballantine Books in 1953.

Heroes without Glory: Some Good Men of the Old West. Donald I. Fine, Inc. Distributed by Penguin U. S. A. 1987. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1965.

"If Stories Must Be Taught." In Stephen Dunning, Teaching Literature to Adolescents: Short Stories. Scott, Foresman, 1968.

"Jack Schaefer Comments on his short story 'Stubby Pringle's Christmas.'" In Stephen Dunning, Teaching Literature to Adolescents: Short Stories. Scott, Foresman, 1968.

The Kean Land and Other Stories. Introduction by Jack Schaefer. Bantam Books, 1988. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1959.

This volume also includes "Stalemate," "Nate Bartlett's Store," "The Old Man," "The Coup of Long Lance," "Enos Carr," and "The Fifth Man."
The Kean Land and Other Stories. Andre Deutsch (London), 1960.

Mavericks. Illustrated by Lorence Bjorklund. Andre Deutsch (London), 1968. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1967.

*Monte Walsh. University of Nebraska Press, 1981. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1963.

*"A New Direction." In Shane: The Critical Edition, 421-30. Originally published in Western American Literature (Winter 1976).

Address given before the Western Literary Association in 1976.
*Old Ramon. Illustrated by Harold West. Walker, 1993. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1960.

This timeless tale of an old shepherd, a young boy, and two brave dogs was a 1961 Newbery Honor Book and an American Library Association Notable Book.
Out West: An Anthology of Stories. Edited by Jack Schaefer. Houghton Mifflin, 1955.

The Pioneers. Houghton Mifflin, 1954.

*Shane. Bantam Books, 1980. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1949.

Shane. Edited by Margaret Early. Houghton Mifflin, 1964.

An expurgated school edition, including superfluous, often absurd advice for teachers.
*Shane: The Critical Edition. Edited by James C. Work. University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

The Short Novels of Jack Schaefer. Introduction by Dorothy M. Johnson. Houghton Mifflin, 1967.

Includes Shane, The Canyon, First Blood, Company of Cowards, and The Kean Land.

Secondary Sources

[Bibliographic information is incomplete for some items.]

Cleary, Michael. "Jack Schaefer." In Erisman and Etulain, eds., Fifty Western Writers, 424-33.

------. "Jack Schaefer: The Evolution of Pessimism." In James C. Work, ed., Shane: The Critical Edition, 319-317. Originally published in Western American Literature 14 (May 1979): 33-47.

Courtwright, David T. Violent Land: Single Men and Social Disorder From the Frontier to the Inner City. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Dieter, L. "Behavioral Objectives in the English Classroom: A Model." English Journal, December 1970, 1259-62.

Dunning, Stephen. Teaching Literature to Adolescents: Short Stories. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman: 1968.

From a valuable series (unfortunately out-of-print), which also includes volumes on the novel, plays, and poetry.
Erisman, Fred. "Growing Up with the American West: Fiction of Jack Schaefer." In James C. Work, ed., Shane: The Critical Edition, 289-99. Originally published in Richard W. Etulain and Michael T. Marsden, eds., The Popular Western (Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University, Popular Press, 1974.)

------. "Jack Schaefer." In J. Golden Taylor, ed., A Literary History of the American West, 959-70.

------. "Jack Schaefer: The Writer as Ecologist." Western American Literature. 13 (Spring 1978): 3-13.

------, and Richard W. Etulain, eds. Fifty Western Writers. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Etulain, Richard W. Western American Literature: A Bibliography of Interpretive Books and Articles. Vermilian, South Dakota: Dakota Press, 1972.

Hall, Oakley. Foreword to Jack Schaefer, Heroes Without Glory.

Haskell, Molly. "The First Action Hero." New York Times Book Review, March 23, 1997.

Review of John Wayne's America: The Politics of Celebrity, by Gary Wills.
Haslam, Gerald. "Jack Schaefer." In James C. Work, ed., Shane: The Critical Edition, 16-56.

------. Jack Schaefer. Boise State University Western Writers Series, no. 20, 1975.

------. "The Western Story." In J. Golden Taylor, ed., A Literary History of the American West, 152-158.

Horn Book Magazine. Review of Jack Schaefer, Mavericks.

Hutchinson, W. H. "The Cowboy in Short Fiction." In J. Golden Taylor, ed., A Literary History of the American West, 515-522.

James, George. "Jack Schaefer." Obituary. New York Times, January 27, 1991.

Johnson, Dorothy M. "Jack Schaefer's People." Introduction to The Short Novels of Jack Schaefer.

Limerick, Patricia Nelson. "Where the Oats Don't Grow to Perfection." Review of Bad Land, by Jonathan Raban. Times Literary Supplement, February 28, 1997.

------. "Circling the Wagons." Review of American Frontiers: Cultural Encounters and Continental Conquest, by Gregory H. Nobles. New York Times Book Review, March 16, 1997.

Marsden, Michael T. "The Making of Shane: A Story for All Media." In James C. Work, ed., Shane: The Critical Edition, 338-53. Originally published as "Shane: From Magazine Serial to American Classic," South Dakota Review 15 (1977-78): 59-67.

McNamee, Gregory. "Plundered Province: The American West as Literary Region." Chronicles, November 1991.

McPherson, James M. For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997

See review by Russell F. Weigley.
Mikkelsen, Robert. "The Western Writer: Jack Schaefer's Use of the Western Frontier." In James C. Work, ed., Shane: The Critical Edition, 300-306. Originally published in Western Humanities Review 8 (1954).

Nuwer, Henry Joseph. "An Interview with Jack Schaefer." In James C. Work, ed., Shane: The Critical Edition, 277-88. Originally published in South Dakota Review in 1973.

Prescott, Orville. "A Good Man With a Horse." Review of Monte Walsh by Jack Schaefer. New York Times, September 9, 1963.

Quinones, Ricardo J. "The New American Cain: East of Eden and Other Works of Post-World War II America." Chapter 7 of The Changes of Cain: Violence and the Lost Brother. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Includes an analysis of Shane, which is also discussed in the volume's Introduction.
Rankin, Chuck. "Clash of Frontiers: A Historical Parallel to Jack Schaefer's Shane. In Work, James C., ed., Shane: The Critical Edition, 3-15.

Robinson, Forrest G. Having It Both Ways: Self-Subversion in Western Popular Classics. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1993.

See especially Chapter 4, "Shane," based on "Heroism, Home, and the Telling of Shane" (originally published in Arizona Quarterly, 45 [1989]: 72-100); and Chapter 5, "Theoretical Postscript," based on the previously published essay "The New Historicism in the Old West."
Ryan, Margaret. Teaching the Novel in Paperback. New York: Macmillan, 1963.

Scott, Winfield Townley. Introduction to The Collected Stories of Jack Schaefer.

Shor, Rachel. "Jack Schaefer." Wilson Library Bulletin 35 (1961): 471.

Simmons, Marc. "A Salute to Shane." The Roundup 22 (May 1974): 1-2, 9, 11.

------. Foreword to James C. Work, ed., Shane: The Critical Edition, vii-xii.

Slocum, J. David. "On the Wild Frontier."

Review of Violent Land: Single Men and Social Disorder from the Frontier to the Inner City, by David T. Courtwright.
Smith, C. E. J., ed., Jack Schaefer and the American West. London: Longman, 1978.

Taylor, J. Golden, ed. A Literary History of the American West. Sponsored by the Western Literature Association. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 1987.

Thompson, Laura. "Talking Horse." Review of The Man who Listens to Horses by Monte Roberts. Times Literary Supplement, December 6, 1996, 27.

Torres, Louis. "Jack Schaefer." In Tuska and Piekarski.

------. "Jack Schaefer, Teller of Tales." Aristos, October and December, 1996.

Werner, Emmy E. Pioneer Children on the Journey West. Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1997.

See review by Kenneth Anderson.
Wheeler, Richard S. "Notes from a Writer of Trash." Chronicles, November 1991, 48-50.

------."The Best in the West." Roundup.

Williamson, Chilton, Jr. "Space Art." Review of New Ground: Western American Narrative and the Literary Canon, by A. Carl Bredahl. Chronicles, February 1990, 30-31.

------. "Western Is as Western Does." Chronicles, February 1990, 12-13.

Work, James C. "Settlement Waves and Coordinate Forces in Shane." In Shane: The Critical Edition, 307-18. Originally published in Western American Literature 14 (1974): 191-200.

------. Shane: The Critical Edition. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.


Background Sources

[Bibliographic information is incomplete for some items.]

Agee, Jonis. "Thoreau in Big-Sky Country." Review of Coyote Wind, by Peter Bowen. New York Times.

Ahearn, Kerry. "Larry McMurtry." In Erisman and Etulain, eds., Fifty Western Writers, 280-90.

Astro, Richard. "John Steinbeck." In Erisman and Etulain, eds., Fifty Western Writers, 477-87.

------. "John Steinbeck." In J. Golden Taylor, ed., A Literary History of the American West.

Blackmur, Richard P. Introduction to Henry James, The Art of the Novel.

Bradford, M. E. "Imagining the West." Chronicles, November 1991, 32-34.

Bredahl, A. Carl. "Inscribing the American Frontier." Chronicles, November 1991, 26-30.

------. New Ground: Western American Narrative and the Literary Canon. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.

Brinkley, Alan. "The Western Historians: Don't Fence Them In." New York Times Book Review, September 20, 1992.

Brogan, Hugh. "Criticize? The Hell You Will." Review of John Wayne: American, by Randy Roberts and James S. Olson. Times Literary Supplement, June 28, 1996, 19.

Brown, Dee. The American West. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994.

Butler, Jack. "The Irresistible Gunfighter." Review of Anything for Billy, by Larry McMurtry. New York Times Book Review, October 16, 1988.

Chowder, Ken. "A Writer Who Lived the Adventures He Portrayed [Stephen Crane]." Smithsonian, [Date to be supplied: '96 or '95.]

Combs, Richard. "The First Cut Is Still the Bleakest." Review of The Wild Bunch and My Darling Clementine (classic western films). Times Literary Supplement, November 10, 1995, 35.

Cooper, John Milton, Jr. "Only the Dead Could Forget: A Soldier's-Eye View of the War that Made the Men Who Made the Rest of the 20th Century." Review of The First World War: A Complete History, by Martin Gilbert. New York Times Book Review, January, 1995.

Courtwright, David T. Violent Land: Single Men and Social Disorder From the Frontier to the Inner City. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage.

Cronon, William, George Miles, and Jay Gittlin, eds. Under an Open Sky: Rethinking America's Western Past. New York: W. W. Norton, 1992.

Denby, David. "How the West Was Lost." Review of Unforgiven (film). New York Magazine, August 24, 1992.

Donald, David Herbert. "Why They Fought." Times Literary Supplement, June 9, 1995, 11.

Review of three books on the American Civil War: The Battle of the Wilderness, May 5-6, 1864, by Gordon C. Rhea; Gettysburg, by Kent Gramm; and What They Fought For, 1861-1865, by James McPherson.
Engel, Joel. "Forgiving the Sins, Loving the Sinner." New York Times, August 9, 1992.

Etulain, Richard W. Western American Literature: A Bibliography of Interpretive Books and Articles. Vermilian, South Dakota: Dakota Press, 1972.

Frantz, Joe Bertram, and Julian Ernest, Jr. The American Cowboy: The Myth and the Reality. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1955.

Fraser, Caroline. "The Prairie Queen." New York Review of Books, December 22, 1994, 38-45.

Review of The Ghost in the Little House: A Life of Rose Wilder Lane, by William Holtz; The First Four Years, by Laura Ingalls Wilder; A Little House Sampler, by Laura Ingalls Wilder and Rose Wilder Lane; West from Home: Letters of Laura Ingalls Wilder, San Francisco, 1915, edited by Roger Lea McBride.
Goodman, Walter. "Winning the West, or Stealing or Losing It." New York Times, September 14, 1996.

Hagen, Charles. "A Hard Look at the American West." Review of exhibition of photography by Robert Adams. New York Times, March 1, 1996.

Haskell, Molly. "The First Action Hero." New York Times Book Review, March 23, 1997. Review of John Wayne's America: The Politics of Celebrity, by Gary Wills.

Haslam, Gerald. Introduction to "Earth Tones: Ethnic Expression in American Literature." In J. Golden Taylor, ed., A Literary History of the American West, 1026-1037.

Heatherington, Madelon. "Romance without Women: The Sterile Fiction of the American West." In Barbara Howard Meldrum, ed., Under the Sun: Myth and Realism in Western American Literature. Troy, N. Y.: Whitson Publishing, 1985.

James, Caryn. "Out of Zane Grey's Old West." Review of Riders of the Purple Sage (film based on the 1912 novel by Zane Grey). New York Times, [Date to be supplied: '96 or '95.]

------. "How the West Was Lost (as a Staple of TV)." New York Times, September 15, 1996.

James, Henry. The Art of Fiction: And Other Essays. Introduction by Morris Roberts. New York: Oxford University Press, 1948.

------. The Art of the Novel: Critical Prefaces. Foreword by W. B. Lewis. Introduction by Richard P. Blackmur. [Pub. data to be supplied.]

James, Will. Smoky the Cowhorse. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1993.

John, Andrew. "Way Out West." Times Literary Supplement, December 29, 1995, 19.

Johnson, Dorothy M. Indian Country. Introduction by Jack Schaefer. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995. Originally published by Ballantine Books in 1953.

Contains two of Johnson's best-known stories: "The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance" and "A Man Called Horse," which depicts the life of a white captive in a Crow Indian camp. Both stories were adapted into highly successful movies. Johnson wrote the Introduction The Short Novels of Jack Schaefer.
Kakutani, Michiko. "The Making of a Myth Who Rode Into the Sunset." Review of John Wayne's America, by Garry Wills. New York Times, February 25, 1997.

Kimball, Roger. "'Heterotextuality' and Other Literary Matters." Wall Street Journal, December 31, 1992.

Lemann, Nicholas. "Tall in the Saddle." Review of Lonesome Dove, by Larry McMurtry. New York Times Book Review, June 9, 1985.

Lesy, Michael. Wisconsin Death Trip. New York: Pantheon, 1973.

Period photographs and news items chronicling life in a small frontier town in Wisconsin between 1890 and 1910. Lesy deliberately focuses on epidemics, suicides, insanities, bankruptcies, and early deaths.
Limerick, Patricia Nelson. "Where the Oats Don't Grow to Perfection." Review of Bad Land, by Jonathan Raban. Times Literary Supplement, February 28, 1997.

------. "Circling the Wagons." Review of American Frontiers: Cultural Encounters and Continental Conquest, by Gregory H. Nosles. New York Times Book Review, March 16, 1997.

Maguire, James H. Introduction to J. Golden Taylor, ed., A Literary History of the American West, 3-7.

------, and Jack Nachbar. "The Modern Popular Western: Radio, Television, Film and Print," in J. Golden Taylor, ed., A Literary History of the American West, 1263-1282.

McMurtry, Larry. "How the West Was Won or Lost." New Republic, October 22, 1990, 32-38.

------. Lonesome Dove. New York: Pocket Books, 1986.

McPherson, James M. For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1997.

See review by Russell F. Weigley.
Milner, Clyde A., II, Carol A. O'Connor, and Martha A. Sandweiss, eds. The Oxford History of the American West. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

See, especially, Chapter 20 ("The Literary West") and Chapter 22 ("Selling the Popular Myth") for their extensive bibliographic notes.
Myerson, Allen R. "Following Capt. McMurtry, Take by Take." New York Times, May 12, 1996.

Nicholls, Richard E. "'Westward I Go Free.'" Op-ed article. New York Times, April 12, 1996.

O'Connor, John J. "A Lonesome Dove Sequel by McMurtry Himself." Review of "Larry McMurtry's Streets of Laredo" (television miniseries), New York Times, November 10, 1995.

Ott, Bill. "What America Reads: Myth Making in Popular Fiction." American Library Association, 1984. Pamphlet.

Payne, Robert. The Chieftain: A Story of the Nez Perce People. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1953.

About Chief Joseph (1840-1904), the great Indian leader who inspired Jack Schaefer's story "Jacob."
Porter, Susan. "Back in the Saddle Again." Writer's Digest, August 1993, 44-49.

Raban, Jonathan. Bad Land: An American Romance. London: Picador, 1997.

See reviews by Limerick, above.
Rand, Ayn. "Art and Sense of Life." In The Romantic Manifesto, 34-44.

------. "Basic Principles of Literature." In The Romantic Manifesto, 80-98.

------. "Introduction to Ninety-Three." In The Romantic Manifesto, 153-61. Originally published in Victor Hugo, Ninety-Three, translated by Lowell Bair (New York: Bantam, 1962).

------. "Philosophy and Sense of Life." In The Romantic Manifesto, 25-33.

------. The Romantic Manifesto: A Philosophy of Literature. Revised ed. New York: Signet, 1975.

Includes Rand's essays on the philosophy of art (by which she means the "fine arts," including literature).
------. "The Simplest Thing in the World: A Short Story." In The Romantic Manifesto, 173-85.

Illustrates the role of sense of life in the writing of fiction.
------. The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism. New York: Signet, 1964.

Reed, Rex. "On the Town with Rex Reed." Review of Unforgiven (film). New York Observer, August 24-31, 1992.

Rhea, Gordon C. The Battle of the Wilderness, May 5-6, 1864. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1994.

A dramatically detailed account of the Civil War battle central to Jack Schaefer's Company of Cowards.
Rieff, David. "Ride 'Em, Cowboy! Rodeos and Reality." Review of Biting the Dust: The Wild Ride and Dark Romance of the Rodeo Cowboy and the American West, by Dirk Johnson. New York Times, December 13, 1994.

Roberts, Monty. The Man Who Listens to Horses. Hutchinson, 1996.

Roberts, Morris. Introduction to Henry James, The Art of Fiction and Other Essays (New York: Oxford University Press, 1948).

Rölvaag, Ole. Giants of the Earth: A Saga of the Prairie. 1927.

Rölvaag was a Norwegian who immigrated to South Dakota as a young man in 1896. In the words of Caroline Fraser, his novel "tells of the wife of an emigrant who was driven to religious madness by her hatred and fear of the empty spaces of the plains." "The Prairie Queen," 38.
Sarris, Andrew. "Eastwood's Romantic but Realistic Unforgiven Hits the Mark." Review of film. New York Observer, August 24--31, 1992.

Savage, William W., ed. Cowboy Life: Reconstructing an American Myth. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1975.

Schaefer, Jack. An American Bestiary. Foreword by James S. Findley. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975.

------. The Canyon. New York: Bantam Books, 1968. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin, 1953. [OP]

------. Collected Papers, Inventory. Accession #430. American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming at Laramie.

------. The Collected Stories of Jack Schaefer. Introduction by Winfield Townley Scott. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966. [OP]

------. Company of Cowards. New York: Bantam Books, 1970. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin, 1957. [OP]

------. Conversations with a Pocket Gopher and Other Outspoken Neighbors. Illustrated by Irene Brady. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Capra Press, 1978.

------. First Blood and Other Stories. New York: Bantam Books, 1970. [OP]

This collection may have included an Introduction by Schaefer. The short novel First Blood was first published by Houghton Mifflin in 1953.
------. Heroes without Glory: Some Good Men of the Old West. New York: Donald I. Fine, Inc., 1987. Distributed by Penguin U. S. A. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1965.

------. "If Stories Must Be Taught." In Stephen Dunning, Teaching Literature to Adolescents: Short Stories. Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1968. [OP]

------. Introduction to Dorothy M. Johnson, Indian Country (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995).

------. "Jack Schaefer Comments on 'Stubby Pringle's Christmas.'" In Stephen Dunning, Teaching Literature to Adolescents: Short Stories, . [OP]

------. The Kean Land and Other Stories. Introduction by Jack Schaefer. New York: Bantam Books, 1988. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1959. [OP]

In addition to The Kean Land, this volume contains the following works: "Stalemate," "Nate Bartlett's Store," "The Old Man," "The Coup of Long Lance," "Enos Carr," and "The Fifth Man."
------. Mavericks. Illustrated by Lorence Bjorklund. London: Andre Deutsch, 1968. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1967. [OP]

------. Monte Walsh. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1981. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1963.

------. The Movies and the People Who Make Them (periodical). Vols. 1-3, No. 2. New Haven: Theatre Patrons, Inc., 1939-41.

------. "A New Direction." In James C. Work, ed., Shane: The Critical Edition, 421-30. Originally published in Western American Literature (Winter 1976).

Address given before the Western Literary Association.
------. Old Ramon. Illustrated by Harold West. New York: Walker, 1993. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1960.

------. Shane. New York: Bantam Books, 1980. Originally published by Houghton Mifflin in 1949.

------. Shane. Edited by Margaret Early. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1964. [OP]

An expurgated school edition, including superfluous, often absurd advice for teachers.

------. Shane: The Critical Edition. Edited by James C. Work. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

------. The Short Novels of Jack Schaefer. Introduction by Dorothy M. Johnson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967. [OP]

Includes Shane, The Canyon, First Blood, Company of Cowards, and The Kean Land.
------, ed. Out West: An Anthology of Stories. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1955.

Scott, Winfield Townley. Introduction to The Collected Stories of Jack Schaefer.

Severo, Richard. "A. B. Guthrie, Jr." Obituary. New York Times, April 27, 1991.

Guthrie wrote the screenplay for the film version of Shane and won a Pulitzer Prize for his novel The Way West.
Seidman, Michael. "Choosing Your Genre: The Western." Writer's Digest, July 1992, 27.

Shaara, Michael. The Killer Angels. Originally published by Random House in 1974.

Pulitzer-Prize winning novel about the Civil War.
Simonson, Harold P. "Frederick Jackson Turner: Frontier as Symbol." In Beyond the Frontier: Writers, Western Regionalism, and a Sense of Place. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 1989.

Slocum, J. David. "On the Wild Frontier." Review of Violent Land: Single Men and Social Disorder From the Frontier to the Inner City, by David T. Courtwright.

Smith, Michael. "Reel Politik: Great Conservative Cinema." Policy Review, Fall 1994.

Stegner, Page. "The Plains That Broke the Plow." Review of Bad Land: An American Romance by Jonathan Raban. New York Review of Books, February 6, 1997, 32-34.

Stegner, Wallace. Collected Stories of Wallace Stegner. New York: Penguin Books, 1991.

------. "History, Myth, and the Western Writer." In The Sound of Western Water.

Stevens, Mark. "Chief Joseph's Revenge." New Yorker, August 8, 1994, 26-33.

About the retreat led by the renowned Indian chief who was the inspiration for Jack Schaefer's "Jacob." Includes the brief text of his legendary battlefield speech--which, the author observes, "fully deserves comparison with Lincoln's Gettysburg Address." Fine photograph of Chief Joseph.
Sutherland, John. "Enjoyable Carpings." Review of Peter Parker, ed., The Reader's Companion to the 20th-Century Novel. Times Literary Supplement, April 21, 1995.

------. "Tarzan in Chaps." Review of three books by Western pulp-fiction writer Max Brand, and three autobiographical books by Ralph Moody. Times Literary Supplement.

Thompson, Laura. "Talking Horse." Review of The Man Who Listens to Horses by Monte Roberts. Times Literary Supplement, December 6, 1996, 27.

Thrall, William Flint, and Addison Hibbard. A Handbook to Literature. Revised and enlarged by C. Hugh Holman. New York: Odyssey Press, 1960. First published in 1936.

Torres, Louis, and Michelle Marder Kamhi. "Ayn Rand's Philosophy of Art: A Critical Introduction." Aristos, Vol. 5, Nos. 2-5 (1991-92).

------. What Art Is: The Esthetic Theory of Ayn Rand (forthcoming). Chicago: Open Court, 1998.

Turner, Frederick Jackson. The Frontier in American History. Foreword by Ray Allen Billington. Huntington, New York: Robert E. Krieger: 1976.

------. Rereading Frederick Jackson Turner: "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" and Other Essays. Introduction by John Mack Faragher. New York: Henry Holt, 1994.

Tuska, Jon, and Vicki Piekarski, eds. Encyclopedia of Frontier and Western Fiction. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983.

------. Encyclopedia of Frontier and Western Fiction. 2nd ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press (Forthcoming, 1999).

The Schaefer entry is based on "Jack Schaefer, Teller of Tales," by Louis Torres, which appeared in Aristos, October and December 1996.
Tuttleton, James W. "Pride and Shame: The Winning of the West." The New Criterion, October 1996. (See also "The Myths of 'The West,'" in Notes and Comments of this issue.)

Weigley, Russell F. "Courage of Their Convictions: A Dissenting View on What Led Civil War Soldiers to Fight." New York Times Book Review, March 1997.

Werner, Emmy E. Pioneer Children on the Journey West. Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1997.

See review by Kenneth Anderson.
Westbrook, Max. Preface to J. Golden Taylor, ed., A Literary History of the American West, xv-xx.

Wheeler, Richard S. "The Best in the West". Roundup, 9.

Williamson, Chilton, Jr. "Big Little House in American Literature." Chronicles, November 1991, 20-25.

About the fiction of Laura Ingalls Wilder.
Wills, Gary. "American Adam." New York Review of Books, March 6, 1997, 30-33.

Wills attributes John Wayne's enduring popularity to the fact that he "embodies the American myth."
------. John Wayne's America: The Politics of Celebrity. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997.

Includes "American Adam," cited above.
Wood, Michael. "John Wayne Agonistes."

Review of John Wayne's America, by Gary Wills. New York Review of Books, April 24, 1997, 30-32.
Worcester, Don. The Chisholm Trail. New York: Indian Head Books, 1994.

An interesting and informative volume (includes notes, bibliography, and index) illustrated with period photographs.


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